This paper presents a detailed study of DC grid operation using a range of user-defined offline and real-time HVDC converter models which were rigorously validated against offline and real-time benchmarks. Provided that these models are destined for use in real-time hardware in the loop simulation and a wide range of offline system studies, this paper assesses their suitability for studying complex DC grids that consist of multiple voltage source converters which differ in their control range and fault ride-through capabilities. Detailed quantitative studies show that the offline and real-time DC grid models produce well matched results and provide efficient approaches to investigate DC grid operation during normal condition and AC and DC faults.
D. Guo et al., "Interoperability of different voltage source converter topologies in HVDC grids," 15th IET International Conference on AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2019), Coventry, UK, 2019, pp. 1-6.
KEYWORDS: Interoperability; Voltage source converter; HVDC transmission systems; modular and hybrid multilevel converters; multi-terminal DC grids; offline and real-time simulations