Fast and accurate fault location is critical to restoration of the power system. Deployment of production grade Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) based on the latest IEEE C37.118.1 measurement standards using high-speed “P Class” data makes accurate fault location possible. Multi-terminal PMU data and decentralized PDC storage can easily be leveraged to not only obtain affordable and accurate fault location but also provide the operator with key information. By-products of this process are dynamic computation of line positive-sequence impedance and fault resistance.
This paper presents the implementation of a proven multi-ended fault locator  with manufacturer-independent synchrophasor sources with data being stored in a decentralized fashion. The rationale motivating this implementation is to take advantage of readily available PMU data at various voltage levels, facilitating economical and accurate fault location using PMU devices.
The calculations are performed at an Engineering Data Concentrator (EDC) which may be located outside of the Control Center environment. When a fault trigger indication is raised by the PMU and stored on the PDC Historian, it becomes detectable by the EDC which will collect datasets from the relevant PMUs, analyses the data and, if a fault is identified, performs the fault location calculations. Summary results are then passed on to the Control Center environment (typically EMS for transmission system) while the details are logged locally for further analysis by the engineering department.
Requirements for assuring accurate fault location such as timing source accuracy and the selection of time window for fault location calculation are described. Simulation results demonstrating impact of DC offset, load, and fault resistance are presented. The Testing approach is also addressed to ensure accuracy for various fault types and scenario (high impedance fault, slow operating circuit breaker, lines with mutual coupling, intermittent communication).
S. Picard, M. Adamiak, V. Madani, Presented at Grid of the Future Symposium 2014 - Houston, Texas, United States, October 19 - 21, 2014, paper 2014-29
KEYWORDS: Synchrophasor, PMU, Fault Location, IEEE C37.118, IEEE 61850-90-5, PDC, IRIG-B, IEEE 1588