Testing of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU devices) is necessary for any PMU application, be it a simple visualization and archiving system or a more complex set of real-time system operations tools. PMUs are available from virtually every manufacturer of protection and monitoring equipment. PMUs can be an embedded function within relays or disturbance recorders, alternatively, PMUs can be standalone products. Many PMUs installations throughout the world are typically used for offline analysis and monitoring. PMU data can include monitoring of oscillations, angle difference, system frequency and voltage stability. Other ideas for PMU data include situational awareness, alarm and operational limit settings, state estimation and congestion management to name a few.
D. Ouellette, M. Desjardine, R. Kuffel, Y. Zhang and E. Xu, "Using a Real Time Digital Simulator with Phasor Measurement Unit technology," 2011 International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection, Beijing, 2011, pp. 2472-2476.
KEYWORDS: Phasor measurment, precise time protocol, phasor data concentrator, latency, skew, total vector error, pulse per second