Smart Grid have enabled numerous opportunities for electrical distribution systems in terms of automation, operation, control and optimization in recent years. Expansion of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems have provided considerable amount of data that can be captured from termination points to be used for different distribution network automation and optimization needs.
Hence, new AMI-based techniques could be great candidates for the optimization of future grids. One of the conventional techniques used to minimize losses and improve voltage profile of distribution systems is "Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO)". Capacitor Banks (CB), Voltage Regulators (VR) and On-load Transformer Tap Changers (OLTC) are the most common control components VVO engines are operating with to optimize grids. One constituent part of new VVO techniques that have recently found wide application in North America is Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR). CVR attempts to conserve energy usage by maintaining residential load voltages on the lower limits of standard range without considerable impact on customer supply. To optimize distribution network using quasi-dynamic characteristics of loads, AMI-based techniques can be employed. AMI-based VVO optimizes the grid using quasi real-time snapshots of required data. Hence, the load variations can be observed with higher precision.
This paper primarily presents a novel quasi real-time approach for AMI-based VVO. Presented VVO engine captures quasi real-time AMI data to optimize distribution network. At each quasi realtime stage, VVO engine minimizes loss and performs CVR to conserve energy. As most recently installed Smart Meters are able to send active/reactive load profile of termination points every fifteen minutes, the VVO engine can optimize the network every 15 minutes as well. Moreover, one concern that utilities have grappled with is the fundamental difference between offline model and real-time operation. Online operation may impose significant restrictions on the VVO systems. Offline simulation operating time can be unlimited but, the time that the VVO engine takes to find the optimal solution is limited in real-time. Furthermore, switching and load conditions affect VVO performance.
Hence, this paper provides a real-time co-simulation environment through reliable communication
platform. Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) is utilized for real-time simulation and DNP.3 is used
as communication protocol between VVO engine and control components.
M. Manbachi, H. Farhangi, A. Palizban, S. Arzanpour, Presented at the CIGRÉ Canada Conference on Power Systems, Winnipeg, Canada, Sep. 2015., paper CIGRE 629
KEYWORDS: Conservation Voltage Reduction, Distribution Network, Energy, Smart Grid, Volt-VAR Optimization