Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) present new challenges to traditional planning and operation philosophies and well-established concepts and theories. Traditional protection protocols and design schemes are being challenged by inverter-based resources and DER technologies. With a definite inclination toward higher renewable energy proliferation, smart grid technologies coupled with data analytics and artificial intelligence are being used for increasing DER penetration. For research, investigation, and deployment the industry is adopting various off-line and real-time modelling and simulation techniques. This paper will present some aspects of modelling and simulation in the purview of present and future protection systems. Given the increasing availability of massive data and machine intelligence, some applications of artificial intelligence and data analytics will also be provided for future considerations.
Maigha, A. Brandt, Presented at PAC World Global Conference 2021, Virtual Event, August 2021