Along with the increasing share of non-synchronous power sources, the inertia of power systems is being reduced, which can give rise to frequency containment problems should an outage of a generator or a power infeed happen. Low system inertia is eventually unavoidable, thus power system operators need to be prepared for this condition. This paper addresses the problem of low inertia in the power system from two different perspectives. At a system level, it proposes an operation planning methodology, which utilises a combination of power flow and dynamic simulation for calculation of existing inertia and, if need be, synthetic inertia (SI) to fulfil the security criterion of adequate rate of change of frequency (RoCoF). On a device level, it introduces a new concept for active power controller, which can be applied virtually to any power source with sufficient response time to create synthetic inertia. The methodology is demonstrated for a 24 h planning period, for which it proves to be effective. The performance of SI controller activated in a battery energy storage system (BESS) is positively validated using a real-time digital simulator (RTDS). Both proposals can effectively contribute to facilitating the operation of low inertia power systems.
Kosmecki, M.; Rink, R.; Wakszyńska, A.; Ciavarella, R.; Di Somma, M.; Papadimitriou, C.N.; Efthymiou, V.; Graditi, G. A Methodology for Provision of Frequency Stability in Operation Planning of Low Inertia Power Systems. Energies 2021, 14, 737. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030737
KEYWORDS: synthetic inertia; virtual inertia; operation planning; real-time simulation; battery energy
storage system; RoCoF