The protection of active distribution networks incorporating microgrids with high penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) can be challenging if traditional protective relays are used. This is mainly due to the changes in the power flow, fault current level, difficulty in protection coordination, changes in system topology, and system operating conditions. This paper proposes three new protection algorithms for active distribution networks with large penetration level of inverter-based DERs. These protection algorithms comprise of an adaptive differential protection algorithm, incremental transient energy-based directional protection, and a rate-of-change of current protection. The proposed protection algorithms were tested with a distribution network integrated with wind, solar, diesel generator, and battery storage DERs which are capable of operating in islanded mode forming local microgrids. The distribution system and the proposed protection functions modelled and simulated using the Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS®). The results obtained from tests validate the proposed algorithms; and their capability to correctly detect and timely isolate faults without resulting in nuisance tripping of the DERs.
A.C. Adewole, A.D. Rajapakse, D. Ouellette, P. Forsyth, Electric Power Systems Research, Volume 202, 2022, 107575, ISSN 0378-7796, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2021.107575.(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779621005563)