Correct operation of generator protection is critical to avoid forced outages and to minimize damage during internal faults and other abnormal events. Testing security for external faults and system disturbances has been carried out in the past using real-time systems or transient simulation software. Scaled physical models have been employed to simulate internal faults. However, these machines are restricted in the types of faults that can be applied and the variety of systems that can be modeled.
This paper describes a new synchronous generator model that has been developed in a real-time digital simulator. The model can be configured with a wide range of electrical and mechanical parameters and can simulate various types of faults both on the rotor and on the stator.
The paper also describes how the new model was used to validate a new multifunction generator protection relay. The relay incorporates several novel protection elements, so comprehensive
validation of these elements was very important. A wide range of faults were applied, including external faults, power swings, stator winding faults, field short-circuits, and faults during static starting.
This paper focuses on stator winding protection for ground faults, phase faults, turn-to-turn faults, and series faults. The performance of the protection was measured for these events. Application guidance for stator ground, split-phase, and negative sequence directional protection for generators is provided.
A. B. Dehkordi, R. Chowdhury, N. Fischer, D. Finney, Presented at Western Protective Relay Conference (WPRC) 2021, October 19-21, 2021, virtual conference.